Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC) was formally launched in 1959 – April – 06th at Orlando community hall in Soweto. The decision to forming other organisation was as a result of the abandoned mission by our former comrades who saw it fit to give away our struggle which we initiated since 1652, the arrival of settlers.


The founding executive included the following:

  • Prof Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe (President)
  • Potlako Kitchener Leballo (SG)
  • Zephania Lekoane Mothopeng (Legal affairs)
  • ZB Molete (Publicity & Information)
  • Abednigo B Ngcobo (Treasurer)
  • Peter Molotsi
  • E Mfaxa
  • Peter Raboroko
  • Jacob Nyaose.

With additional members

  • Howard Ngcobo,
  • Selby T Ngendane
  • Nana Mahomo.

All these individuals had played an imperative role in the political work of the Congress Youth League and millitarising the ANC.


1959 – PAC is launched and adopt and implement Status Campaign in Orlando Communal Hall, Soweto.

1960 – March – 21st PAC embark on a massive national initiative, known as Anti-Pass Campaign which sadly result in a popular Sharpeville/Langa Day.

1960 – Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe is found guilty for his leading role in the massacre.

1961 – PAC is now banned for its militancy and radicalism 1962 Ntlonze Hill- Members of Poqo who were hanged in 1962 include Khathazekile Philaphi, Nkosinam Ngalo, Modi Mbizo, Zenzile May, Sqwayi Mhlaba and Goli Zanomzi, all from Cofimvaba.

1962 – November – 22nd – Paarl Revolt by Poqo 1963 – Poqo comrades were hanged, they are as follows: Fezile Jaza, Lennox Madikane, Tembile Nyovu, Johannes Notyawe, Fanele Matikinca and Jonathan Sogwagwa.

1963 – Ntloze Hill Mtutu Apleni, the Commander of the group, Nothimba Mbozwana and Bonakele Ngcolongolo were executed and twenty were hanged due to Police acting out of information that Poqos had dangerous weapons.

1967 – Those who were already serving long sentences were hanged in 1967, they include leader of the Task Force, Baden Koboka, Edward Sikhundla, Jabavu Mzondi, Hans Gqibile, McDonald Mgweba, Magqadaza Magushe, Goduka Galem, Livingstone Fatyela, Wellington Tyobeka, Nkosencinci Maseti, Mteleli Ntuli and Leornard Zambodla. Proffesor Tom Lodge, an independent scholar contend that “the most insurgent organisation in the country was Poqo, the military wing of the PAC and Umkhonto we Sizwe, a sabotage wing of the ANC”. The two wings reflected in their different strategies, their fundamental ideological differences. The PAC insurgents were much more numerous than their counterpart. In terms of geographical extensiveness, the Poqo conspiracies represented the largest and sustained African insurrection since the inception of modern African political organisation in this country”.
He further asserts that the perspective of this movement over relatively long time span and over a large geographic area, qualifies Poqo to lay claim to being the most sustained insurrection by black in this country in modern times. Plethora of hanfged political prisoners are PAC leaders and their monument today can reveal that in Pretoria, Mamelodi. How Prof was treated and other PAC leaders in prison tell the whole story. Robben Island was flooded by plethora of PAC leaders than any other movement. PAC have the longest served prisoner in this country, Jafta Kgalabi Masemola spent 28 years in Robben Island.

1976 – Notwithstanding the banned PAC, we masterminded and participated in the June 16 hence Uncle Zeph was prosecuted and identidfied accused No.1 in the longest political trial in Azania, otherwise known as Bethal Treason Trial or Bethal 18 Trial.

1978 – February 28 Prof Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe passes on due “cancer”.

1990 – 1993 – APLA launches “The Year of Great Storm”.

1994 – PAC participated in the elections led by Mafrika Clearence Makwetu Notwithstanding the politics have changed and the approach also have to be relevant in respect with the atmosphere.